Karnabharam and Madhyama-Vyayoga

Karnabharam and Madhyama-Vyayoga

Mahakavi Bhasa


The idea of the play appears to be reflected from Adiparva and Vanaparva. Present book is the first ever work comprising of both Hindi and English translation of these two plays as well as with detailed introduction.


Karnabharam and Madhyama-Vyayoga are two of the most favous plays (Rupaka) of great poet Bhasa. Whereas the main character in Karnabharam is Karna, in Madhyama-Vyayoga, it is Ghatotkaca. The main source of Karnabharam appears to come from the Kundalaharanaparva under Vanaparva of Mahabharata and that of Madhyama-Vyayoga is based upon the story of Ghatotkaca (son of Bhima and Hidimba).

The Recitation of the Vedas

Author: Pierre-Sylvain Filliozat. Translated from the French by T.K. Gopalan.

The earliest Vedic hymns testify already to a high degree of linguistic awareness of its authors. It appears for example in the play on the etymology of words. Thereafter, while the language seems to evolve relatively little, the knowledge of its structures develops considerably. Conservatism and linguistic awareness seem to go hand in hand. That could only have increased the distance between the ‘popular’ language of the non-specialists and the language of the experts in religion, since the former is always capable of a spontaneous evolution. In this situation it is important, for following the evolution of Vedic, to describe the preservationist measures which have influenced its destiny, to determine its environment that consisted of other forms of speech, to uncover the diverse and fluctuating influence of these forms of speech whose own evolution was probably much faster.... More

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